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Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: In 2020, Zambia’s REDD+ implementation efforts were guided by the NS, including with UN-REDD Programme support for fundraising and building up the necessary country systems to implement REDD+. Zambia first prepared its National REDD+ Strategy in 2014, which was launched in 2017.

FREL/FRL: With the support of the Programme, Zambia compiled an updated FREL in 2020 (Output 2.5). It was submitted to the UNFCCC in early 2021 for technical assessment. The new FREL includes improved activity data and emission factors. It also updates the reference period and breaks down estimates by province. This improved dataset will provide a basis for improved planning of mitigation efforts and also a basis for reporting any emission reductions from 2019 onwards.

NFMS: The UN-REDD Programme coordinated a group of agencies, including USFS, FAO and the FCPF, facilitating to jointly deliver coherent technical support on the NFMS, avoiding duplications of efforts and creating connections for potential collaboration and scaling up. Activity data were collected through a mapping campaign and using the latest methodological approaches, which will make future updates easier and enhance the usefulness of data also for planning mitigation activities. Emission factors were calculated through a re-analysis of results from the National Forest Inventory (Integrated Land Use Assessment Phase II).

SIS: Zambia made significant progress in the development and operation of its SIS in 2020, by designing the webpage and structuring the database with UN-REDD support. After stakeholder validation, formal approval will be needed to publish the SIS webpage. The country also developed a draft proposal for improving the national interpretation of UNFCCC REDD+ safeguards, by incorporating elements of the World Bank’s Environmental and Social Framework.

 
REDD+ Implementation

Guided by the REDD+ strategy and the REDD+ investment plan, in 2019 and 2020, Zambia worked with UN-REDD support to acquire additional funding for REDD+ implementation from the GCF’s REDD+ Simplified Approvals Process (GCF SAP-REDD+). The project proposal targets reducing GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia’s North-Western Province in support to NDC implementation and for RBPs (output 3.29).

In 2020, the country’s Forestry Department continued its work on designing Zambia’s approach to nesting subnational REDD+ efforts and carbon credit projects. Notably, this includes work towards a statutory instrument on carbon management, which would regulate carbon ownership and benefit-sharing and thereby facilitate access to carbon finance through projects and jurisdictional programmes.

Challenges and solutions

The Zambian Forestry Department is stretched in terms of human resources and time available to dedicate to the development of the REDD+ work.

In 2020, COVID-19 created enormous challenges for the delivery of technical assistance. Missions to the country had to be suspended, some in-person meetings could not take place, other meetings and workshops were postponed, or had to be reorganized to implement COVID-19 protocols. The UN-REDD team has shifted their modus operandi towards online interaction and has, despite great difficulties, been able to deliver progress.

Gender and social inclusion

Gender equality is a guiding principle when organizing capacity development interventions. For example, when organizing workshops, the Programme has tracked gender indicators.

As part of the process of gathering safeguards information, the Department of Gender was identified and engaged as an information provider. The template developed for gathering information on safeguards also considered gender-disaggregated information, where available.

Some CSOs were identified and engaged as information providers as part of the work developed to gather safeguards information for Zambia’s SIS, and these will be engaged at the stage of review and validation of the information. The National Safeguards Technical Working Group, comprised of diverse government institutions and other stakeholders, holds periodic meetings to advance the safeguards processes.

Partnerships

The UN-REDD Programme’s work is closely coordinated with other REDD+ initiatives. During 2020, the UN-REDD Programme continued closely coordinating with the Zambia Integrated Forest Landscapes Programme (ZIFL-P) in Eastern Province, which is being proposed for results-based funding to the BioCarbon Fund. Coordination especially covered the exchange of information on activity data and emission factors, as well as potential alignment between the benefit-sharing arrangements for the North-Western Province developed in the context of the GCF SAP-REDD+ project, and for the ZIFL-P for Eastern Province.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

The work done by Viet Nam on the Warsaw Framework pillars was completed in 2018, thanks to UN-REDD Phase II. Continuing from 2019, in 2020, the Government undertook its MRV, supported by UN-REDD, and worked on the submission of a BUR technical annex on REDD+. Based on the Government’s MRV, which indicated positive results, a process to apply for RBPs from the GCF has been initiated by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

REDD+ Implementation

The Programme contributed to the review of the MRV components against Viet Nam’s FRLs in coordination with JICA, including support to the documentation of the NFMS through the REDD+ technical annex, and provided support to the Government towards accessing GCF RBPs in the future (Output 2.6).

Building on the revised National Action Plan on REDD+ approved in 2017 and the corresponding Mid-Term Implementation Plan, the Programme successfully supported Viet Nam to develop the project titled Integrated sustainable Landscape management through deforestation-free jurisdiction approach in Lam Dong and Dak Nong provinces project, funded by the European Union (EU) (EUR 5 million). An agreement with the EU was signed at the end of 2020 while agreement negotiations with consortium partners are ongoing. Once concluded, project implementation is expected to begin in 2021. (Output 3.27).

Progress on the monitoring system of the national and provincial REDD+ action plans has been delayed, compounded by challenges posed to travel and meetings by COVID-19. However, the delays are limited, and the monitoring system is expected to be completed for presentation to Government well within the first quarter of 2021 (Output 3.28).

UN-REDD supported the development of a prototype web-based interface on results from the monitoring and evaluation framework. The Programme’s technical assistance also supported the uptake of knowledge and experience on the use of spatial planning approaches and results across sectors, which has led to the development of an EU-funded project on a deforestation-free jurisdictional approach for the Central Highlands. This project is expected to be an opportunity to test and demonstrate how the monitoring and evaluation framework can be operationalized.

Challenges and solutions

COVID-19-related constraints are now being eased in-country, but international travel remains restricted.

Gender and social inclusion

Building on the lessons and gender analysis from the UN-REDD Programme, the support provided to the EU-funded project in Central Highlands included assistance to help incorporate gender indicators in its results framework as well as ensure relevant project activities integrate gender considerations and promote and enable the participation of ethnic minorities.

The monitoring and evaluation framework for monitoring the impacts of implementing the REDD+ policies and measures also identifies key indicators and means of verification and disaggregates data by gender where appropriate.

Partnerships

UN-REDD is providing support to the Government in coordination with JICA, the agency proposed to take on the accredited agency role under the GCF RBP.

UN-REDD is also coordinating with partners under the EU-funded project for the Central Highlands.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: A monitoring framework with joint indicators was developed for Peru’s National REDD+ Strategy (Estrategia Nacional de Bosques y Cambio Climático, 2016) and the Joint Declaration of Intent between Norway, Germany, and the UK, and the REDD+ priority actions were validated with the forestry and agriculture departments.

FREL/FRL: Peru has advanced in developing a second FREL for the Amazon biome including gross deforestation using a different and enhanced methodology from the first FREL, through a sampling grid using stratified area estimations. The new document was submitted to the UNFCCC in February 2021.

NFMS: A protocol for indigenous peoples and community-based monitoring and MRV was developed as part of the national MRV system, with broad participation from communities and government institutions.

SIS: On safeguards, there was substantial progress over the course of 2020, with the country publishing its first summary of safeguards information for the period 2012-2019. In addition, a prototype of the SIS has been developed and is currently undergoing review and finalization. Three meetings (including two virtual) of the Safeguards Technical Sub-Committee have been held, enabling consultation with a wide range of stakeholders on safeguards outputs and advances.

REDD+ Implementation

Inter-sectoral coordination and participatory platforms were strengthened through support and creation of i) a participatory platform at a macroregional level (Northern Coast of Peru); ii) two states (Madre de Dios and San Martin); iii) a municipal-level platform (Río Tambo); and iv) three intersectoral committees at a national level for coordination on REDD+ safeguards, forest degradation, and nesting.

Five bankable initiatives aligned to Peru’s REDD+ objectives were identified in the Amazon region with the support of UN-REDD. There are ongoing discussions with potential funders. Support was also provided to regional governments for examining the legal gaps to set up sub-national financial vehicles similar to the Amazon Development Fund (Fondo de Desarrollo Amazónico, or FONDESAM).

Seven virtual exchanges were organized with the National Federation of Savings and Loans Cooperatives (Federación Nacional de Cooperativas de Ahorro y Crédito del Perú, or FENACREP) on sustainable finance with a focus on the agricultural sector.

REDD+ priority actions, in line with the National Strategy on Forests and Climate Change (Estrategia Nacional Sobre Bosques y Cambio Climático, or ENBCC), were prioritized through a participatory consultative process.

The REDD+ Environmental Excellence Standard of the Architecture for REDD+ Transactions (ART TREES) standard was preliminarily assessed for Peru, using existing data, however, this exercise will have to be completed with the new data from the FREL.

Challenges and solutions

Peru was one of the countries hit hardest by COVID-19 and has had one of the highest excess death rates in the world during the pandemic. The government-mandated quarantine included the strict prohibition of meetings of more than 10 people and forbade all national travel except for emergency and frontline personnel. Due to this all activities that required travel and visits to communities in 2020 had to be stopped and readjusted to be implemented virtually when possible. This affected mainly activities that required consultation such as the prioritization of REDD+ Actions and community-based forest monitoring activities. In addition, the president of Peru was subjected to a second impeachment in November 2020, and a new interim president was appointed by Congress, resigning after only six days.

Despite this, and through a contingency plan, most of the activities were readjusted. Nonetheless, due to the substantial disruptions during the year, it was necessary to request a second no-cost extension to the UN-REDD Executive Board, which was granted until September 2021.

There were technical challenges to the estimation of deforestation for the second FREL, and the Ministry of the Environment and other agencies had to hire more experts to meet the tight deadlines.

Gender and social inclusion

UN-REDD Programme support helped to integrate a gender perspective into the country’s first summary of information on REDD+ safeguards, wherein gender is noted as a cross-cutting element, participation of stakeholders is disaggregated by gender, and links to key gender-related policies, laws, and regulations are established in the elaboration of safeguards discussion.

Gender mainstreaming was also a priority in the implementation of activities in 2020. Overall, capacity-building activities benefited 162 women and 311 men (34 and 66 percent, respectively). In addition, women are well represented in Peruvian institutions and decision-making bodies related to REDD+, and the climate change director, mitigation director, and minister of the environment are all women. To illustrate, women occupied at least 40 percent of the seats in the subcommittees of Dialoguemos Peru, the main platform for participatory processes for forest and climate change at the national level.

For the virtual exchanges with FENACREP, surveys included questions related to women’s access to credit in the cooperative sector and examples of gender-related actions of international financial institutions were presented during the initial session. Women represented 33.7 percent of the participants of these webinars with FENACREP.

Partnerships

Safeguards advances in Peru have been well coordinated with teams from both the World Bank and the Forest Investment Program (FIP), with inputs from work on the FCPF SESA and ESMF, and the FIP feeding into the overall implementation of the safeguards road map.

Studies supported through UN-REDD on infrastructure drivers of deforestation during the pandemic, and the portfolio of investments, were coordinated with the GCFTF initiative to ensure complementarity and avoid duplication.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: The National REDD+ Strategy has been developed, with the support of the UN-REDD Programme, through a driver analysis, comprehensive multi-stakeholder consultation process, including with ethnic armed organizations (EAOs), and development of a strong cross-sectoral set of policies and measures. The document is currently pending formal approval from the government. In addition, a first draft of the REDD+ Investment Plan has been prepared, based on criteria to prioritize policies and measures for implementation and geographic areas. These have been compared with existing planned investments relevant to REDD+ that are in the pipeline, with gaps identified. Indicative proposals to fill the gaps have been prepared.

FREL/FRL: After completion of the technical assessment and uploading of the revised FRL document to the UNFCCC website in January 2019, the technical assistance continues to support the Government on development of information and capacity for subsequent FRLs including changes in forest remaining forest, and in sub-national jurisdictions and strata, including mangroves.

NFMS: The NFI design has been finalized and piloted in several forest types. Field methodology and data analysis methods have been developed, ready for full-scale implementation. The Satellite Land Monitoring System (SLMS) has been fully developed and is ready for public launch. Through technical assistance, data on mangrove forests and national capacity to measure changes in this forest type have been improved.

SIS: REDD+ safeguards have been defined in the context of Myanmar, with strong participation from both government institutions and civil society organizations (CSOs). Guidelines for adherence to the principle of free, prior, and informed consent are being finalized. An SIS has been designed and is in the process of being operationalized, with an interim webpage developed and progress made on information-collection templates and institutional arrangements. A summary of information on safeguards has been submitted to UNFCCC.

REDD+ Implementation

The initiative titled Integrating Mangroves into REDD+ Implementation in Myanmar was developed and approved by the UN-REDD Programme Executive Board.

Challenges and solutions

In a complex political and social situation like Myanmar’s, characterized by a low historical level of trust between communities and Government and great diversity of indigenous groups, more resources would have been needed for stakeholder engagement. The stakeholder engagement budget should not have been based on norms from other national programs. The quality and quantity of communications, information flow, and capacity building are critical in a low-trust environment. A specialist EAO advisor to support the Stakeholder Engagement Advisor under the national program would have been useful. More investment and design of appropriate stakeholder engagement approaches will be explored for the subsequent phases of REDD+ implementation in Myanmar, and this lesson can be incorporated into relevant ongoing and pipeline initiatives including the mangroves initiative.

Challenges were encountered related to shifting to more remote support and online or remote consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic; experience was gained in adjusting approaches for restrictions in Myanmar, such as the virtual launch of the mangroves initiative and individual interviews and calls on SIS development, but delays in implementation of this initiative were unavoidable.

Gender-mainstreaming capacity gaps remain, as well as a need for support staff working on gender, sufficient budget allocated to addressing gender-related issues, and additional political will from the government to further support gender mainstreaming in REDD+ efforts.

With regards to the uncertain circumstances in the country after the events of February 2021, the UN and UN-REDD partners are analyzing the situation and security is being closely monitored. A conflict sensitivity analysis will be prepared when and if circumstances allow. For the time being, training and workshops are on hold.

Gender and social inclusion

Women’s participation in consultations and events has increased from about 20 percent in 2016 to more than 40 percent in 2020.

In addition, the indicators proposed for the SIS have included gender-disaggregated data, and the policies and measures note the establishment of gender-responsive forestry, agricultural, and Agroforestry extension services in rural and hill areas.

The capacity of national institutions to implement effective and participatory governance arrangements for REDD+ has increased, but further progress on inter-sectoral coordination is necessary. Institutional measures for REDD+ awareness-raising and information flow are defined, and the quality of available information, some of which have been translated into several ethnic minority languages, is sufficient. But the diversity of stakeholder groups and associated logistical complexity means that the national program was not able to ensure that information flows are able to reach all groups throughout the country. Policy, legal and regulatory (PLR) analysis was conducted and the target of filling 75 percent of PLR gaps was mostly achieved.

Indigenous peoples’ representative organization POINT (Promotion of Indigenous and Nature Together), and national CSO MERN Myanmar Environment Rehabilitation-conservation Network) continued to represent their constituencies in the Programme Executive Board of the national program until its conclusion in November 2020, and continue to be active through the technical assistance mangroves initiative. Through the mailing list of the Technical Working Group on Stakeholder Engagement and Safeguards, the draft version of the SIS interim webpage has been shared for feedback with governmental and non-governmental stakeholders.

Partnerships

The improvement of the SLMS has been supported together with the SERVIR Mekong Initiative, and the web-based geoportal for the NFMS will be hosted on the OneMap platform.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

Côte d’Ivoire has already fulfilled the four pillars of the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ during the past years, with support from UN-REDD projects and UN-REDD technical assistance.

NS/AP: In 2020, the national REDD+ strategy (2017) and the subsequent REDD+ investment plan (2019) informed the ongoing NDC review process, in which UN agencies play key advisory roles. Two pioneering jurisdictional strategies focusing on the cocoa-forest nexus were designed in a multi-stakeholder way (in the regions of Cavally and Bélier).

FREL/FRL: Mapping of activity data for 2000-2020, including forest degradation, has been completed. The submission of the FREL has been postponed, in agreement with the national coordination, to a later date when the GCF scorecard for RBP becomes available (June 2021).

NFMS: UN-REDD also provided capacity building on the activity data processing chain, which has served to integrate forest degradation in the NFMS (including dense time-series analyses of historical satellite imagery archives to map all disturbances and distinguish deforestation from degradation for the period 2000-2020). The workflow allowed the technicians of the REDD Permanent Executive Secretariat to work in parallel through online solutions (SEPAL platform).

SIS: Finally, UN-REDD and the World Bank helped operationalize the national SIS by developing a beta version of the SIS online platform. In addition, a mechanism for gathering safeguards information from different institutions and stakeholders across the country was designed, including capacity building for safeguards information providers. These innovations will feed the second summary of information on safeguards to the UNFCCC (scheduled for 2021).

REDD+ Implementation

UN-REDD supported legal reviews for REDD+, including input to more than 10 draft decrees aiming to enforce the forest code, under the Ministry of Water and Forests, and covering diverse issues, such as benefit-sharing, NFIs, forest products, and community forestry.

UN-REDD also supported financial models and private-sector engagement on the forest-cocoa nexus. Economic models for sustainable cocoa production were produced and disseminated, with field testing started. They included an economic model for agroforestry, a model for cocoa swollen shoot disease, and financial solutions to support restoration at scale.

In addition, two jurisdictional strategies were designed in a participatory way, with financial support from the Governors’ Climate & Forests Task Force (GCFTF) initiative, to conciliate forest conservation and restoration with cocoa production. These represent pilots to guide country stakeholders and engage the private sector. Financial partnerships on the forest-cocoa nexus were advanced too, with UN-REDD support. For instance, Partnership 1for20 has started to mobilize private finance to support the implementation of sustainable commodity production, reforestation, and access to smallholder farmers. The briefing Making Agroforestry Work at Scale, which brings together many of the mentioned economic models that reconcile forests and cocoa, was presented to the World Cocoa Foundation and its partners, to stimulate the engagement of companies.

Challenges and solutions

The COVID-19 pandemic, plus the 2020 presidential elections, disrupted national and field processes, as well as the ability of the UN-REDD Programme to provide timely and qualitative technical assistance to the country. Nevertheless, the country remained active in its endeavors, and UN-REDD used digital means and in-country experts to keep the mentioned streams active.

Gender and social inclusion

The safeguards information parameters include a criterion on gender-equitable decision making (B5) as well as an indicator to track how the REDD+ framework integrates procedures on effective participation into decision making and equitable benefits sharing for men and women. In addition, the mechanism to gather safeguards information includes gender-disaggregated information where available.

The development of integrated forest-cocoa jurisdictional strategies in the Cavally and Bélier regions, which is supported by a GCFTF project, included gender mainstreaming efforts that built on UN-REDD gender knowledge and methods. Rural women and women’s organizations were among the key stakeholders who contributed to such jurisdictional strategies. The socially inclusive model was praised by the regional governments and the civic and community stakeholders alike, and knowledge products to disseminate the approach are under elaboration.

Partnerships

UN-REDD works in partnership with different organizations and country partners, including the EU-REDD Facility, the GCFTF initiative, the World Bank, the GCF, and the Cocoa & Forest Initiative, among others. UN-REDD provides tailored technical assistance to help the country in their policy commitments (e.g. NDCs), mobilize partners and finance, and test innovations and pilot initiatives.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: Colombia strengthened the implementation of its REDD+ Strategy through the approval of the GCF RBP REDD+ proposal for $28.2 million, its inputs on deforestation to the National Council for Economic and Social Policy (CONPES), and the increased mitigation ambition from reducing deforestation in the updated NDC, with technical inputs and support from UN-REDD.

FREL/FRL: Colombia was in the assessment process of an enhanced FREL during 2020, technically supported by UN-REDD (FREL Convention), moving forward from subnational to national level. The assessment process will conclude in the first quarter of 2021. A South-South exchange between Colombia and Peru was organized under the title Forests Reference Emission Level (FREL): from subnational to national approaches”.

NFMS: Colombia continued to improve its NFMS, including the development of a proposal for monitoring restoration at the national level supported by UN-REDD, South-South exchange on restoration monitoring between Guatemala, and the strengthening of the institutional community monitoring board led by the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales, or IDEAM).

SIS: Colombia has strengthened the safeguards information currently available at its RENARE platform (Registro Nacional de Reducción de Emisiones de Gases Efecto Invernadero, or National Registry for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions) by developing a draft template for collecting safeguard information and a list of potential safeguards requirements for REDD+ projects and programs, supported by UN-REDD.

REDD+ Implementation

Colombia is progressing in the implementation of the REDD+ Strategy through several initiatives supported by UN-REDD:

  • The CFM programme was initiated with a pilot phase in eight departments.
  • Field actions in 35,964 hectares were identified and are being implemented in 11,626 of those. This process involved 349 families (including 354 women, 434 men, and 191 children). Publications, reports, and guides were generated.
  • The national institutional roundtable on community forestry management, led by the Environment Ministry, was consolidated as a space for discussion and feedback with other institutions.
  • The forest economy was strengthened by the establishment of supply chains of legal timber into a local community, in collaboration with the FAO-EU FLEGT Programme.
  • The Environment Ministry updated its consultation and participation processes, especially with indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants, through virtual meetings.
  • The country made progress in the Social and Institutional Characteristics of Deforestation Hotspots in Colombia.
  • The Ministry’s Financing Fund for the Agriculture Sector (Fondo para el Financiamiento del Sector Agropecuario, or FINAGRO) strengthened its knowledge by exchanging experiences on land-use finance with other national development banks in the region.
  • FINAGRO strengthened its capacities by reviewing and updating its environmental and social sustainability policy.
Challenges and solutions

The COVID-19 health emergency has caused delays in participatory processes and related activities. The programme faced this challenge by restructuring its delivery to virtual modalities. As a consequence, the number of face-to-face meetings and consultations was drastically reduced and the Programme adopted a methodology to support communities through virtual meetings, phone calls, chats, and other online follow-ups.

More than 30 virtual dialogues between indigenous authorities and government personnel were organized, and a protocol of remote assistance for field actions was established. Also, several online pieces of training and webinars were held.

Another important challenge was the lack of sufficient funds to increase the scope or scale up the planned activities in the field. To address this issue, the programme reviewed and prioritized the activities and the use of financial resources to maximize the impact (e.g. improvements in NFMS, key issues in the social participation process, and linking SIS with RENARE). Many virtual meetings took place too and allowed the actor dialogues supported by UN-REDD.

Gender and social inclusion

Applying UN-REDD developed gender tools, the Environment Ministry integrated gender-responsive approaches throughout its work on REDD+ in 2020 and recognized its key role in achieving community forest management.

In this work, the country incorporated and systematized the different elements of ethnicity, gender, and generational approaches in the implementation of community forest management actions, such as those related to capacity building, tool development, and stakeholder engagement activities. These efforts, among others, have resulted in:

  1. increasing women’s participation in community forestry from 15 percent in 2018 to 40 percent in 2020;
  2. addressing gender gaps at the community level, and
  3. the integration of a gender perspective in the national guidance for community forestry management.

Based on the main actions implemented with a gender perspective in community forestry, the following results were achieved:

  • Creation of spaces for women to congregate, to support one another and enhance each other’s leadership and management capacities on community affairs, and identification of women’s future actions, contributing to their sustainability.
  • Representation of women in community decision-making bodies.
  • Use of gender differential training in forest harvesting tasks to encourage both women’s and men’s involvement.
  • In addition, women were encouraged to participate in the process of construction and agreement of the normative instrument that created the National Indigenous Environmental Commission (NIEC).

In 2020, Colombia renegotiated the Joint Declaration of Intent (JDI) (2015), to incorporate a new scope for the period 2021-2025 and the adaptation of milestones associated with ethnic groups. Colombia also made progress in the implementation of the JDI, restructuring the line of financing for ethnic groups ($4.8 million), and strengthening local technical capacities.

The Environment Ministry created a space for sharing experiences and best practices (more than 20 virtual meetings) on the implementation of the commitments of the National Development Plan, especially those associated with the management of forests and deforestation. In parallel, the Environment Ministry and indigenous organizations strengthened their capacities and developed the decree that stipulated the NIEC to discuss measures and actions associated with reducing deforestation and managing forests in indigenous peoples’ territories.

Partnerships

Colombia’s capacities to implement community forest management were strengthened and articulation was promoted between actors in the process (FCPF, Global Green Growth Institute,

Probosques, the Andes and Central American office of French conservation organization Office National des Forêts ONF Andina, and others) and with the approval of the GCF RBPs REDD+ proposal for the Amazon Region. Furthermore, the technical capacities of indigenous leaders and authorities were strengthened by the formulation of three projects to be implemented with the third grant from the FCPF in 2021 (around $950,000).

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: National Strategy on Climate Change and Vegetation Resources (Estrategia Nacional de Cambio Climático y Recursos Vegetacionales, or ENCCRV): Evaluation, implementation, and collection of lessons learned from ENCCRV´s measures (including PES) was completed in 2020, allowing Chile to establish new models of sustainable forest management that can be replicated and scaled up.

FREL/FRL: Progress was achieved in the expansion of the FREL/FRL to the southern ecoregion (Aysén, Magallanes), including the development of density diagrams for certain forest types. Chile also advanced the construction of its carbon map, allowing the country to estimate the carbon content and flow for specific analysis periods.

NFMS: Chile advanced the development of computer applications to estimate land-use change map accuracy and the uncertainty of its FREL/FRL and REDD+ Technical Annex. Design and development of ENCCRV´s Environmental and Social Co-benefits System were also undertaken in 2020.

SIS: Chile advanced the development of the social and environmental safeguards reporting format for the implementation of REDD+ projects and made progress in the system´s semi-automated reports format. Chile also initiated the review and development of the safeguards management module.

REDD+ Implementation

Progress was achieved on determining the log-frame and budget of the +Bosques project (GCF REDD+ RBP project). Work started to specify annual goals and measures to be executed in conjunction with regions (Maule, Biobío, Ñuble, Araucanía, Los Ríos, and Los Lagos).

ENCCRV measures, including four forest-management models (Coquimbo, the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Araucanía, and Magallanes) and five PES projects (Coquimbo, the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Araucanía, and Los Rios) continued implementation in 2020. Analysis of lessons learned will be conducted in 2021 to scale up at the regional and eventually national levels. Three of the forest-management projects are in the process of finalizing activities and closing, pending only the execution of restoration actions in the Araucanía region. In line with the priorities of Chile’s UN-REDD National Programme, PES projects are all currently under implementation.

Challenges and solutions

Chile has been heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic since March 2020, with a total of 608,937 cases registered as of December 2020 and 16,608 deaths associated with the virus. Social distancing was adopted as a preventive measure, which affected all the face-to-face activities planned with the beneficiaries, strategic partners, consultants, and workers in general.

The outbreak of community transmission of COVID-19 in Chile began in October 2020 and triggered massive social protests, movement restrictions, and significant economic losses. The mobility restrictions (curfews, quarantines, sanitary belts, among others), affected fieldwork given the access limitations to the territories and impediments to the provision of technical assistance. Carrying out monitoring and evaluation in the field was also a challenge. Supply chains have been interrupted, which made it difficult to acquire goods and services. As a result of these disruptions, a no-cost extension up to September 2021 was requested for Chile’s National Programme and was approved by the UN-REDD Programme Executive Board.

Gender and social inclusion

The gender perspective was included in the development of the reporting format for social and environmental safeguards and has also been considered during the process of designing the benefits sharing system (still in the process of adjustment).

Chile’s National Forest Corporation (Corporación Nacional Forestal, or CON-AF) actively participated in the Gender and Climate Change Roundtable led by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Women. During this roundtable discussion, the participatory process of the ENCCRV was presented and a retrospective review analysis of the Strategy was carried out based on the criteria of the Gender and Climate Change Checklist. CONAF´s Wild Areas Management Unit also developed the Decalogue of Good Practices to incorporate the gender approach in the planning, management, and participation process of the State’s wild protected areas. In addition, a workshop was undertaken in 2020 with CONAF, which was focused on analyzing the formulation of two gender indicators to be included in the institutional management for 2021.

In order to support women beneficiaries of Law No. 20.283 on forestry conservation and recovery of native forests, a proposal was developed calling for the formulation of a strategy for promoting productive chains, with a focus on non-wood forest products and environmental services. A proposal of gender indicators for PES projects was also developed.

Efforts aimed at safeguarding and respecting the rights of indigenous peoples continued. A series of workshops were developed within the framework of the benefit-sharing system, which incorporated, through a participatory process, focus groups of Indigenous Peoples to gather opinions to improve the system, which allowed their holistic worldview of the territory to be incorporated.

In 2020, Chile also initiated the implementation of a cultural payment for ecosystem services project in conjunction with the indigenous community of Quinquén. Finally, a section on management on Indigenous Peoples’ matters and social affairs was integrated into CONAF’s institutional website. This initiative, led by the Unit for Indigenous and Social Affairs, materialized in the first half of January 2021.

Partnerships

Chile made steps towards the third phase of REDD+ through the launch of the project +Bosques in August 2020. Additionally, it is expected that during 2023 funds from the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) emissions reduction purchase agreement (ERPA)will be incorporated.

The land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) sector are now included in the integration pillar of the updated NDC, which considers sectors relevant for adaptation and mitigation. The forestry sector stands out, where ambition regarding sectoral commitments has increased. Additionally, two new commitments are included, regarding REDD+ and the National Landscape Restoration Plan.

Work has been carried out in conjunction with the Ministry of the Environment for the review and adjustment of Global Environment Facility Project Preparation Grant stage (Cycle 7) Economic Instruments for Biodiversity, including activities that would allow continuation of PES projects in Los Rios.

The National Landscape Restoration Plan 2021-2030 was formulated by the Ministries of the Environment and of Agriculture. This plan will provide the basis for the development of a bi-ministerial agenda in favor of landscape restoration with an emphasis on forests in the country.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

National REDD+ Strategy/Action Plan (NS/AP): In 2018, Honduras completed analysis on the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and on land tenure. In addition, the National Programme for Recovering Degraded Ecosystem Goods and Services was finalized as part of the National REDD+ Strategy. The programme, formalized by decree and approved under Ministerial Agreement 1030-2018, was officially published in La Gaceta in June 2018. Honduras took significant steps towards assessing the potential non-carbon benefits of REDD+ implementation. A preliminary report maps the areas offering greater potential for non-carbon benefits as well as areas that may be more vulnerable to the main deforestation and forest degradation drivers in the country.

Forest Reference Emissions Level (FREL): To improve FREL estimates, progress has been made in clarifying the definitions for the remaining four REDD+ activities (forest degradation, sustainable forest management, enhancement and conservation of forest carbon stocks) in coordination with the technical team of the National Institute of Forest Conservation and Development, Protected Areas and Wildlife (ICF). Tests have been carried out to estimate activity data, by integrating spatial information with the NFI’s field data in the Google Earth Engine platform to further reach a methodological consensus.

National Forest Monitoring Systems (NFMS): The ICF signed a ministerial agreement to institutionalize the NFMS, making it the official reporting platform for generating data for informed decision-making in the forestry sector. An improvement plan developed for ICF officials for the management, administration and use of the NFMS platform will be implemented in 2019.

Safeguard Information System (SIS): Honduras made important advances towards meeting UNFCCC requirements on safeguards, including the development of an initial proposal for SIS design, as well as a draft summary of safeguards information. An additional safeguard, ‘the Cultural Safeguard’, was developed through a participatory process. The National Committee for Environmental and Social Safeguards of Honduras (CONASASH) has also been established.

REDD+ Implementation

Although Honduras is not receiving UN-REDD technical assistance for REDD+ implementation, through its National REDD+ Strategy (supported by the FCPF), the country is developing an implementation plan and a financial strategy to fund REDD+ implementation through the GCF or another financial entity. Moreover, the REDD+ national team actively participated in the negotiation process that concluded with the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA)-FLEGT between Honduras and the European Union, to obtain support for good governance in the forest sector. To comply with the commitments, an inter-institutional memorandum of understanding was signed between MiAmbiente and the ICF to strengthen cooperation for the implementation of the VPA-FLEGT and REDD+.

Challenges and solutions

There were substantial changes in both the technical and coordination teams due to the political crisis in 2017; however, a successful transition was achieved thanks to the documentation and systematization of the project. Concerns from groups representing indigenous peoples and Afro-Honduran peoples have been addressed through a series of dialogues, meetings and training sessions to learn about and participate in the project’s actions.

Gender and social inclusion

Diagnoses and consultations on mainstreaming gender into the various elements of the REDD+ pillars have been carried out and guidelines developed. The national technical team, with support from UN-REDD, updated the stakeholder involvement plan. Workshops were held to inform and gather input from indigenous and Afro-Honduran women and local communities on the studies of deforestation drivers and land tenure, which has strengthened and reaffirmed positions on their conditions to guarantee full and effective participation. The REDD+ process has also supported the elaboration of MiAmbiente’s Institutional Gender Strategy, which was validated and launched in October 2018.

Effective participation of relevant stakeholders was achieved through the organization of 29 events (meetings, forums, training sessions, workshops), which saw the participation of 896 persons representing indigenous and Afro-Honduran peoples and other relevant stakeholders – of whom 47 per cent were women and 53 per cent men. Nineteen informative notes have been published on social media, as well as via television, radio and print media as a result of the events and/or activities supported by the project. As for transparency and access to information on REDD+ readiness, all documents from the process are being published on the website: http://www.ocphn.org/v1/reddhonduras/. A blog was also created to share the vision and events of the REDD+ process. During the reporting period there have been 2,269 visits to the website. 

Partnerships

The UN-REDD national programme is implemented in coordination with the FCPF project, where UNDP acts as the delivery partner. Synergies have been established between the results and products of both projects in order to ensure complementary efforts and to strengthen actions.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

In 2018, UN-REDD helped strengthen the capacities of national and regional authorities to support the implementation of the Warsaw Framework elements, promote understanding of the multiple values of forests, drive and coordinate the development of the various REDD+ components, and design a model for decentralized REDD+ under the Warsaw Framework.

REDD+ Implementation

UN-REDD supported the development of a capacity-building framework focused on government forest agencies and academia, including training on REDD+ implementation and REDD+ finance for the practitioners in the sector.

UN-REDD support also provided input for a concept note on a multi-sector programme to support the National Forest Sector Development Programme (NFSDP), which was integrated into a proposal developed by the Government. Furthermore, a coordination framework was developed under the NFSDP to enhance institutional coordination and partnership arrangements.

UN-REDD helped the Government promote strategic partnerships and coordination platforms for NFSDP implementation, as well as related PAMs, through the integration of REDD+ into the multi-sectoral investment plans. The report Scoping private sector opportunities in Ethiopia: How to stimulate both economic development and REDD+ implementation? illustrates the work undertaken on engaging the private sector in investments that support forest and climate change objectives.

Challenges and solutions

Changes to government structure in 2018 resulted in the abolishment of the Ministry of Environment as the entity responsible for climate policies and the establishment of the Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission. As a result, the UN-REDD team devoted time to establishing a working relationship with the new commission.

Gender and social inclusion

Programme’s contribution to the Institutional Strengthening of Forest Sector Development programme, funded by Sida, has centred around the inclusion of processes and mechanisms for implementing the project with an emphasis on gender and social inclusion policies. Priority was given to women’s engagement in training for skill-enhancement activities. The collection and monitoring of data disaggregated by sex has been proposed for the project’s design and implementation.

The proposed tools in the capacity-building framework included a landuse planner, which can be used to develop rural land-use scenarios and relay the information to representatives from national and subnational governments, the private sector, CSOs and local communities so that all are actively involved in land-use decision-making.

Partnerships

There was close cooperation throughout 2018 with the World Bank on the design of the multi-sector programme and how it could coordinate with the World Bank’s existing investment programmes, including the Oromia Forested Landscape Program. Discussions were also held with the European Commission and the Global Green Growth Institute, among others.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

National REDD+ Strategy/Action Plan (NS/AP): Ecuador has completed all the requirements of the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ and is participating in the RBP pilot programme launched by the GCF for the 4,831,679 tCO2 of results achieved during 2014. UN-REDD provided technical support for elaborating the RBP concept note and funding proposal.

Forest Reference Emissions Level / Forest Reference Level (FREL/FRL): Through Component 4 of PROAmazonía (the joint Green Climate Fund/Global Environment Facility (GCF/ GEF) programme implemented by UNDP), and with UN-REDD support, a second FREL is scheduled to be presented to UNFCCC for the second half of 2019. Similarly, the second REDD+ technical annex is being updated and will be presented with the BUR in the second half of 2020. 

National Forest Monitoring Systems (NFMS): UN-REDD is supporting the Ministry of Environment in the implementation of processing chains and in deforestation and forest degradation issues, to determine activity data using the SEPAL tool. In doing so, Ecuador will be the first country to implement this platform in its NFMS, which has fostered new alliances with institutions such as the KfW development bank.

Safeguard Information System (SIS): With the support of UN-REDD, Ecuador is currently working on automating the processes needed for implementing the system that provides information on how the safeguards have been addressed and respected. The REDD+ web portal, which hosts the SIS, is publicly available at the domain http://reddecuador.com.

A road map for a second SOI on how safeguards have been addressed and respected during the 2016–2018 period was developed during 2018. 

REDD+ Implementation

With UN-REDD support, the country was able to transition successfully to the REDD+ implementation phase and access different finance sources such the GEF, the GCF and the REDD Early Movers programme. PROAmazonía was launched in 2017 and is the first programme to focus on implementing the National REDD+ Action Plan. A description of PROAmazonía can be found here (in Spanish): https://ecuador.corresponsables.com/actualidad/presentan-proamazonia-bosques.

Challenges and solutions

Implementing a National REDD+ Action Plan presents a very significant challenge and change of scale when compared with the various processes that took place during the REDD+ readiness process, which were relatively technical and theoretical. The action plan, which includes PAMs to be implemented in forested and agricultural areas and on degraded land, by many different actors and institutions, aims to address all direct and indirect drivers of deforestation. Now, the Ministry of Environment, in conjunction with the Ministries of Agriculture and Finance, the National Secretariat for Planning and Development, the decentralized authorities, the Central Bank of Ecuador, the private sector (including those who produce, trade, finance and consume agricultural and forest-related commodities), indigenous organizations and academia must implement the actions prioritized in the National REDD+ Action Plan in a coordinated manner. Through the provision of technical advice, UN-REDD adds significant value in supporting these coordination processes and the adequate implementation of this action plan. 

Gender and social inclusion

In 2018, PROAmazonía developed its Gender and Interculturality Strategy to address the imbalance in the relationships between men and women that determine or condition gender inequalities and gaps, and to create opportunities for effective participation or decision-making. This strategy aims to ensure that gender interventions promote the full participation of women and men. A proposal for mainstreaming the gender approach within PROAmazonía was developed with the support of United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women).

With the support of PROAmazonía, an agreement between the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples from the Ecuadorian Amazon (CONFENIAE) was approved in 2018, prioritizing activities from the REDD+ Action Plan that will be implemented using results-based payments from 2014.

Partnerships

The PROAmazonía programme engaged in a technical assistance partnership with FAO to mobilize UN-REDD expertise on REDD+ operational systems that need completion, namely, NFMS, FREL and community monitoring.

Country
Year
2021