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Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: Colombia strengthened the implementation of its REDD+ Strategy through the approval of the GCF RBP REDD+ proposal for $28.2 million, its inputs on deforestation to the National Council for Economic and Social Policy (CONPES), and the increased mitigation ambition from reducing deforestation in the updated NDC, with technical inputs and support from UN-REDD.

FREL/FRL: Colombia was in the assessment process of an enhanced FREL during 2020, technically supported by UN-REDD (FREL Convention), moving forward from subnational to national level. The assessment process will conclude in the first quarter of 2021. A South-South exchange between Colombia and Peru was organized under the title Forests Reference Emission Level (FREL): from subnational to national approaches”.

NFMS: Colombia continued to improve its NFMS, including the development of a proposal for monitoring restoration at the national level supported by UN-REDD, South-South exchange on restoration monitoring between Guatemala, and the strengthening of the institutional community monitoring board led by the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales, or IDEAM).

SIS: Colombia has strengthened the safeguards information currently available at its RENARE platform (Registro Nacional de Reducción de Emisiones de Gases Efecto Invernadero, or National Registry for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions) by developing a draft template for collecting safeguard information and a list of potential safeguards requirements for REDD+ projects and programs, supported by UN-REDD.

REDD+ Implementation

Colombia is progressing in the implementation of the REDD+ Strategy through several initiatives supported by UN-REDD:

  • The CFM programme was initiated with a pilot phase in eight departments.
  • Field actions in 35,964 hectares were identified and are being implemented in 11,626 of those. This process involved 349 families (including 354 women, 434 men, and 191 children). Publications, reports, and guides were generated.
  • The national institutional roundtable on community forestry management, led by the Environment Ministry, was consolidated as a space for discussion and feedback with other institutions.
  • The forest economy was strengthened by the establishment of supply chains of legal timber into a local community, in collaboration with the FAO-EU FLEGT Programme.
  • The Environment Ministry updated its consultation and participation processes, especially with indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants, through virtual meetings.
  • The country made progress in the Social and Institutional Characteristics of Deforestation Hotspots in Colombia.
  • The Ministry’s Financing Fund for the Agriculture Sector (Fondo para el Financiamiento del Sector Agropecuario, or FINAGRO) strengthened its knowledge by exchanging experiences on land-use finance with other national development banks in the region.
  • FINAGRO strengthened its capacities by reviewing and updating its environmental and social sustainability policy.
Challenges and solutions

The COVID-19 health emergency has caused delays in participatory processes and related activities. The programme faced this challenge by restructuring its delivery to virtual modalities. As a consequence, the number of face-to-face meetings and consultations was drastically reduced and the Programme adopted a methodology to support communities through virtual meetings, phone calls, chats, and other online follow-ups.

More than 30 virtual dialogues between indigenous authorities and government personnel were organized, and a protocol of remote assistance for field actions was established. Also, several online pieces of training and webinars were held.

Another important challenge was the lack of sufficient funds to increase the scope or scale up the planned activities in the field. To address this issue, the programme reviewed and prioritized the activities and the use of financial resources to maximize the impact (e.g. improvements in NFMS, key issues in the social participation process, and linking SIS with RENARE). Many virtual meetings took place too and allowed the actor dialogues supported by UN-REDD.

Gender and social inclusion

Applying UN-REDD developed gender tools, the Environment Ministry integrated gender-responsive approaches throughout its work on REDD+ in 2020 and recognized its key role in achieving community forest management.

In this work, the country incorporated and systematized the different elements of ethnicity, gender, and generational approaches in the implementation of community forest management actions, such as those related to capacity building, tool development, and stakeholder engagement activities. These efforts, among others, have resulted in:

  1. increasing women’s participation in community forestry from 15 percent in 2018 to 40 percent in 2020;
  2. addressing gender gaps at the community level, and
  3. the integration of a gender perspective in the national guidance for community forestry management.

Based on the main actions implemented with a gender perspective in community forestry, the following results were achieved:

  • Creation of spaces for women to congregate, to support one another and enhance each other’s leadership and management capacities on community affairs, and identification of women’s future actions, contributing to their sustainability.
  • Representation of women in community decision-making bodies.
  • Use of gender differential training in forest harvesting tasks to encourage both women’s and men’s involvement.
  • In addition, women were encouraged to participate in the process of construction and agreement of the normative instrument that created the National Indigenous Environmental Commission (NIEC).

In 2020, Colombia renegotiated the Joint Declaration of Intent (JDI) (2015), to incorporate a new scope for the period 2021-2025 and the adaptation of milestones associated with ethnic groups. Colombia also made progress in the implementation of the JDI, restructuring the line of financing for ethnic groups ($4.8 million), and strengthening local technical capacities.

The Environment Ministry created a space for sharing experiences and best practices (more than 20 virtual meetings) on the implementation of the commitments of the National Development Plan, especially those associated with the management of forests and deforestation. In parallel, the Environment Ministry and indigenous organizations strengthened their capacities and developed the decree that stipulated the NIEC to discuss measures and actions associated with reducing deforestation and managing forests in indigenous peoples’ territories.

Partnerships

Colombia’s capacities to implement community forest management were strengthened and articulation was promoted between actors in the process (FCPF, Global Green Growth Institute,

Probosques, the Andes and Central American office of French conservation organization Office National des Forêts ONF Andina, and others) and with the approval of the GCF RBPs REDD+ proposal for the Amazon Region. Furthermore, the technical capacities of indigenous leaders and authorities were strengthened by the formulation of three projects to be implemented with the third grant from the FCPF in 2021 (around $950,000).

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: National Strategy on Climate Change and Vegetation Resources (Estrategia Nacional de Cambio Climático y Recursos Vegetacionales, or ENCCRV): Evaluation, implementation, and collection of lessons learned from ENCCRV´s measures (including PES) was completed in 2020, allowing Chile to establish new models of sustainable forest management that can be replicated and scaled up.

FREL/FRL: Progress was achieved in the expansion of the FREL/FRL to the southern ecoregion (Aysén, Magallanes), including the development of density diagrams for certain forest types. Chile also advanced the construction of its carbon map, allowing the country to estimate the carbon content and flow for specific analysis periods.

NFMS: Chile advanced the development of computer applications to estimate land-use change map accuracy and the uncertainty of its FREL/FRL and REDD+ Technical Annex. Design and development of ENCCRV´s Environmental and Social Co-benefits System were also undertaken in 2020.

SIS: Chile advanced the development of the social and environmental safeguards reporting format for the implementation of REDD+ projects and made progress in the system´s semi-automated reports format. Chile also initiated the review and development of the safeguards management module.

REDD+ Implementation

Progress was achieved on determining the log-frame and budget of the +Bosques project (GCF REDD+ RBP project). Work started to specify annual goals and measures to be executed in conjunction with regions (Maule, Biobío, Ñuble, Araucanía, Los Ríos, and Los Lagos).

ENCCRV measures, including four forest-management models (Coquimbo, the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Araucanía, and Magallanes) and five PES projects (Coquimbo, the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Araucanía, and Los Rios) continued implementation in 2020. Analysis of lessons learned will be conducted in 2021 to scale up at the regional and eventually national levels. Three of the forest-management projects are in the process of finalizing activities and closing, pending only the execution of restoration actions in the Araucanía region. In line with the priorities of Chile’s UN-REDD National Programme, PES projects are all currently under implementation.

Challenges and solutions

Chile has been heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic since March 2020, with a total of 608,937 cases registered as of December 2020 and 16,608 deaths associated with the virus. Social distancing was adopted as a preventive measure, which affected all the face-to-face activities planned with the beneficiaries, strategic partners, consultants, and workers in general.

The outbreak of community transmission of COVID-19 in Chile began in October 2020 and triggered massive social protests, movement restrictions, and significant economic losses. The mobility restrictions (curfews, quarantines, sanitary belts, among others), affected fieldwork given the access limitations to the territories and impediments to the provision of technical assistance. Carrying out monitoring and evaluation in the field was also a challenge. Supply chains have been interrupted, which made it difficult to acquire goods and services. As a result of these disruptions, a no-cost extension up to September 2021 was requested for Chile’s National Programme and was approved by the UN-REDD Programme Executive Board.

Gender and social inclusion

The gender perspective was included in the development of the reporting format for social and environmental safeguards and has also been considered during the process of designing the benefits sharing system (still in the process of adjustment).

Chile’s National Forest Corporation (Corporación Nacional Forestal, or CON-AF) actively participated in the Gender and Climate Change Roundtable led by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Women. During this roundtable discussion, the participatory process of the ENCCRV was presented and a retrospective review analysis of the Strategy was carried out based on the criteria of the Gender and Climate Change Checklist. CONAF´s Wild Areas Management Unit also developed the Decalogue of Good Practices to incorporate the gender approach in the planning, management, and participation process of the State’s wild protected areas. In addition, a workshop was undertaken in 2020 with CONAF, which was focused on analyzing the formulation of two gender indicators to be included in the institutional management for 2021.

In order to support women beneficiaries of Law No. 20.283 on forestry conservation and recovery of native forests, a proposal was developed calling for the formulation of a strategy for promoting productive chains, with a focus on non-wood forest products and environmental services. A proposal of gender indicators for PES projects was also developed.

Efforts aimed at safeguarding and respecting the rights of indigenous peoples continued. A series of workshops were developed within the framework of the benefit-sharing system, which incorporated, through a participatory process, focus groups of Indigenous Peoples to gather opinions to improve the system, which allowed their holistic worldview of the territory to be incorporated.

In 2020, Chile also initiated the implementation of a cultural payment for ecosystem services project in conjunction with the indigenous community of Quinquén. Finally, a section on management on Indigenous Peoples’ matters and social affairs was integrated into CONAF’s institutional website. This initiative, led by the Unit for Indigenous and Social Affairs, materialized in the first half of January 2021.

Partnerships

Chile made steps towards the third phase of REDD+ through the launch of the project +Bosques in August 2020. Additionally, it is expected that during 2023 funds from the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) emissions reduction purchase agreement (ERPA)will be incorporated.

The land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) sector are now included in the integration pillar of the updated NDC, which considers sectors relevant for adaptation and mitigation. The forestry sector stands out, where ambition regarding sectoral commitments has increased. Additionally, two new commitments are included, regarding REDD+ and the National Landscape Restoration Plan.

Work has been carried out in conjunction with the Ministry of the Environment for the review and adjustment of Global Environment Facility Project Preparation Grant stage (Cycle 7) Economic Instruments for Biodiversity, including activities that would allow continuation of PES projects in Los Rios.

The National Landscape Restoration Plan 2021-2030 was formulated by the Ministries of the Environment and of Agriculture. This plan will provide the basis for the development of a bi-ministerial agenda in favor of landscape restoration with an emphasis on forests in the country.

Country
Year
2021
Progress against the Warsaw Framework

NS/AP: UN-REDD provided technical inputs, in line with Mexico’s National REDD+ Strategy, to the new strategy for financing the forestry sector developed by the National Forest Commission (Comisión Nacional Forestal, or CONAFOR).

NFMS and MRV: Mexico continued to improve its NFMS, including the use of sample-based estimates of deforestation and exploring alternative algorithms.

FREL: Mexico submitted a revised and enhanced FREL in early 2020, technically supported by UN-REDD, improving the calculation of activity data and uncertainties. The review has not been concluded and Mexico expects to submit a modified FREL in early 2021.

SIS: Mexico has progressed in updating its SIS and has published a series of safeguards tools in plain, accessible language to improve access and understanding by local communities. Furthermore, it has advanced updating the contents needed for state safeguards plans, including defining approaches to collect safeguards information at state and national levels to feed into an updated SIS. This was discussed and reviewed with key stakeholders during a workshop titled ‘Strengthening the REDD+ SIS’ in June 2020.

The Programme has informed Mexican authorities about finance mobilization plans such as the GCF REDD+ RBP window, providing inputs on safeguards requirements and sharing other countries’ experiences

REDD+ Implementation

Mexico submitted its revised NDC in late 2020, reinforcing the role of the NS to meet its zero net deforestation target by 2030 and contribute to its unconditional (-22%) and conditional (-36%) mitigation targets, relative to estimated business-as-usual emissions levels.

Access to RBP schemes has been limited by the lack of sufficient clarity on carbon rights and benefit-sharing arrangements, which also led Mexico to withdraw from the FCPF’s Carbon Fund. In response, a legal reform bill is under review in Congress. UN-REDD support has been requested to advance the legal reform and its implementation, but approval is still pending and expected in 2021.

Interest by states continues to expand, including from states covered by the BioCarbon Fund’s Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes proposal. The proposals for Window B (innovation funding window) under the GCFTF initiative supported by UNDP were reviewed by UN-REDD including recommendations for alignment between the REDD+ efforts at the state level and the national REDD+ framework.

Mexico has also adjusted its timeline to prepare and submit its BUR and REDD+ Technical Annex, to which UN-REDD will provide technical assistance. Both will be presented in 2021.

An assessment of the barriers to financing REDD+ compatible activities from the perspective of financial intermediaries was shared and presented to CONAFOR on 18 December 2020, identifying actions to address both real and perceived risks.

The Programme facilitated South-South collaboration on sustainable deforestation-free cattle ranching between Mexico, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Mexico has advanced in restructuring the Virtual Centre of Excellence for National Forest Monitoring to other topics related to the monitoring and implementation of forest actions. On MRV, UN-REDD co-organized and participated in specific webinars to share best practices related to deforestation estimates, FRELs, and REDD+ Technical Annexes.

Challenges and solutions

Despite COVID-19 restrictions on meetings, UN-REDD maintained progress by providing support via online platforms, including virtual missions.

CONAFOR has continued to experience budget reductions, which, added to 2019 reductions, have further limited its operational capacity.

Partly as a result of COVID disruptions, a number of products have been rescheduled for 2021 (FREL, BUR, and REDD+ Technical Annex). The approval of legal reforms that are critical to unlocking carbon rights issues is also pending. In line with this, such activities will be supported in 2021.

Gender and social inclusion

Efforts to ensure gender-equitable participation were undertaken. For example, the FREL/Technical Annex workshop achieved 40-percent female participation.

UN-REDD has participated in selected national- and state-level REDD+ technical groups and Forestry Advisory Committee meetings to share technical perspectives

Partnerships

Mexico withdrew from the FCPF’s Carbon Fund but is proceeding with the Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes, coordinated through CONAFOR. The Programme will consider this work to ensure synergies.

UNDP’s direct support for the Governor’s Climate and Forest Task Force activities in Mexico has facilitated coordination and alignment with UN-REDD support.

Country
Year
2021