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Kyoto Protocol


A subsidiary agreement to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that was signed at COP-3 to the UNFCCC in Kyoto, Japan, December 1997. It specifies emission obligations for the Annex-B countries and defines the three so-called Kyoto mechanisms (or "flexible mechanisms") JI, CDM and emissions trading. It entered into force in 2005.


"Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high-biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."- A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2 REDD.pdf

Alternative definition

It was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.

Alternative source

Kyoto Protocol - Reference Manual, UNFCCC, 2008 (…).